Hz. EBU BEKï¿½R ES SIDDï¿½K (r.a) (571634) Hz. Muhammed (s.a.s.)'in ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ tebliï¿½e baï¿½lamasï¿½ndan sonra ilk iman eden hï¿½r erkeklerin; raï¿½it halifelerin, aï¿½erei mï¿½beï¿½ï¿½erenin ilki. Cï¿½miu'l Kur'an, esSï¿½ddï¿½k, elAtik lakaplarï¿½yla bilinen bï¿½yï¿½k sahabi. Kur'ï¿½nï¿½ Kerim'de hicret sï¿½rasï¿½nda Rasï¿½lullah'la beraber olmasï¿½ndan dolayï¿½, "...maï¿½arada bulunan iki kiï¿½iden biri..." (etTevbe, 9/40) ï¿½eklinde ondan bahsedilmektedir. Asï¿½l adï¿½ Abdï¿½lkï¿½be olup, ï¿½slï¿½m'dan sonra Rasï¿½lullah (s.a.s.)'in ona Abdullah adï¿½nï¿½ verdiï¿½i kaydedilir. Azaptan azad edilmiï¿½ mï¿½nï¿½sï¿½na "atik"; dï¿½rï¿½st, sadï¿½k, emin ve iffetli olduï¿½undan dolayï¿½ da "sï¿½ddik" lï¿½kabï¿½yla anï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. "Deve yavrusunun babasï¿½" manasï¿½na gelen Ebï¿½ Bekir adï¿½yla meï¿½hur olmuï¿½tur. Teym oï¿½ullarï¿½ kabilesinden olan Ebï¿½ Bekir'in nesebi Mï¿½rre b. Kï¿½'b'da Rasï¿½lullah'la birleï¿½ir. Anasï¿½nï¿½n adï¿½ ï¿½mmï¿½'lHayr Selma, babasï¿½nï¿½n ki Ebï¿½ Kuhafe Osman'dï¿½r. Kï¿½nyesi Abdullah b. Osman b. Amir b. Amir... b. Murra ...etTeymï¿½'dir. Bedir savaï¿½ï¿½na kadar mï¿½ï¿½rik kalan oï¿½lu Abdurrahman dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda bï¿½tï¿½n ailesi mï¿½slï¿½man olmuï¿½tur. Babasï¿½ Ebï¿½ Kuhafe, Ebï¿½ Bekir'in halifeliï¿½ini ve ï¿½lï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in Rasï¿½lullah (s.a.s.)'den bir veya ï¿½ï¿½ yaï¿½ kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k olduï¿½u zikredilmiï¿½tir. ï¿½slï¿½m'dan ï¿½nce de saygï¿½n, dï¿½rï¿½st, kiï¿½ilikli, putlara tapmayan ve evinde put bulundurmayan "hanif" bir tacir olan Ebï¿½ Bekir, ï¿½lï¿½mï¿½ne kadar Hz. Peygamber'den hiï¿½ ayrï¿½lmamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Bï¿½tï¿½n servetini, kazancï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½slï¿½m iï¿½in harcamï¿½ï¿½, kendisi sade bir ï¿½ekilde yaï¿½amï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Fil yï¿½lï¿½ndan iki sene birkaï¿½ ay sonra 571'de Mekke'de dï¿½nyaya gelmiï¿½, gï¿½zel hasletlerle tanï¿½nmï¿½ï¿½ ve iffetiyle ï¿½ï¿½hret bulmuï¿½tur. ï¿½ï¿½ki iï¿½mek cï¿½hiliye dï¿½neminde ï¿½ok yaygï¿½n bir ï¿½det olduï¿½u halde o hiï¿½ iï¿½memiï¿½tir. O dï¿½nemde Mekke'nin ileri gelenlerinden olup Araplarï¿½n nesep ve ahbï¿½r ilimlerinde meï¿½hur olmuï¿½tur. Kumaï¿½ ve elbise ticaretiyle meï¿½gul olurdu; sermayesi kï¿½rk bin dirhemdi ki, bunun bï¿½yï¿½k bir kï¿½smï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½slï¿½m iï¿½in harcamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Rasï¿½lullah'a iman eden Ebï¿½ Bekir (r.a.) ï¿½slï¿½m dï¿½vetï¿½iliï¿½ine baï¿½lamï¿½ï¿½, Osman b. Affï¿½n, Zï¿½beyr b. Avvï¿½m, Abdurrahman b. Avf, Sa'd b. Ebï¿½ Vakkas ve Talha b. Ubeydullah gibi ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½n yï¿½celmesinde bï¿½yï¿½k emekleri olan ilk mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½n bir ï¿½oï¿½u ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ onun dï¿½vetiyle kabul etmiï¿½lerdir. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir hayatï¿½ boyunca Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n yanï¿½ndan ayrï¿½lmamï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ocukluï¿½undan itibaren aralarï¿½nda bï¿½yï¿½k bir dostluk kurulmuï¿½tur. Rasï¿½lullah birï¿½ok hususlarda onun gï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ tercih ederdi. Umï¿½mï¿½ ve husï¿½sï¿½ olan ï¿½nemli iï¿½lerde ashï¿½bï¿½yla mï¿½ï¿½avere eden Peygamber (s.a.s.) bazï¿½ hususlarda ï¿½zellikle Ebï¿½ Bekir'e danï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rdï¿½. (ï¿½bn Haldun, Mukaddime, 206). Araplar ona "Peygamber'in veziri" derlerdi. Teymoï¿½ullarï¿½ kabilesi Mekke'de ï¿½nemli bir yere sahipti. Ticaretle uï¿½raï¿½ï¿½yorlar, toplumsal temaslarï¿½ ve geniï¿½ kï¿½ltï¿½rlï¿½lï¿½kleri ile tanï¿½nï¿½yorlardï¿½. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in babasï¿½ Mekke eï¿½rafï¿½ndandï¿½. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, cï¿½hiliye dï¿½neminde de gï¿½zel ahlï¿½kï¿½ ile tï¿½nï¿½nan, sevilen bir kiï¿½i idi. Mekke'de "eï¿½nak" diye bilinen kan diyeti ve kefalet ï¿½denmesi iï¿½lerinin yï¿½rï¿½tï¿½lmesiyle gï¿½revliydi. Muhammed (s.a.s.) ile bï¿½yï¿½k bir dostluklarï¿½ vardï¿½. Sï¿½k sï¿½k buluï¿½ur, Allah'ï¿½n birliï¿½i, Mekke mï¿½ï¿½riklerinin durumu ve ticaret gibi konularda mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vere ederlerdi. ï¿½kisi de cï¿½hiliye kï¿½ltï¿½rï¿½ne karï¿½ï¿½ydï¿½lar, ï¿½iir yazmaz ve ï¿½iiri sevmezlerdi, daha ziyade tefekkï¿½r ederlerdi. ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ Benimsemesi Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Hira daï¿½ï¿½ndan dï¿½nen Hz. Muhammed ile karï¿½ï¿½laï¿½tï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda, Rasï¿½lullah (s.a.s.) ona, "Allah'ï¿½n elï¿½isi" olduï¿½unu sï¿½yleyip "Yaratan Rabbinin adï¿½yla oku" (elAlï¿½k, 96/1) diye baï¿½layan ï¿½yetleri bildirdiï¿½i zaman hemen ona: "Allah'ï¿½n birliï¿½ine ve senin O'nun rasï¿½lï¿½ olduï¿½una iman ettim" demiï¿½tir. Hz. Hatice'den sonra Rasï¿½lullah'a ilk iman eden odur. Hz. Peygamber (s.a.s.) ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ tebliï¿½inin ilk zamanlarï¿½nda kiminle konuï¿½tuysa en azï¿½ndan bir tereddï¿½t gï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½, ancak Ebï¿½ Bekir ï¿½eksiz ve tereddï¿½tsï¿½z bir ï¿½ekilde kabul etmiï¿½tir. Hatta Hz. Peygamber (s.a.s.), "Bï¿½tï¿½n insanlarï¿½n imanï¿½ bir kefeye, Ebï¿½ Bekir'in ki bir kefeye konsa, onun imanï¿½ aï¿½ï¿½r basardï¿½ " diye lï¿½tif bir benzetme de yapmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Mï¿½'min Ebï¿½ Bekir, hayatï¿½nï¿½n sonuna kadar tï¿½m varlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½slï¿½m'a adamï¿½ï¿½, bï¿½tï¿½n hayï¿½rlï¿½ iï¿½lerde en baï¿½ta gelmiï¿½tir. Ebï¿½ Bekir Mekke dï¿½neminde gï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ kabilelere mensup kiï¿½ileri ï¿½slï¿½m'a kazandï¿½rmaya ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½tï¿½, ï¿½te yandan mï¿½ï¿½riklerin iï¿½kencelerine maruz kalan gï¿½ï¿½sï¿½zleri, kï¿½leleri korudu; servetini eziyet edilen kï¿½leleri satï¿½n alï¿½p azad etmekte kullandï¿½. Bilï¿½l, Habbab, Lï¿½beyne, Ebï¿½ Fukayhe, Amir, Zinnire, Nahdiye, ï¿½mmï¿½ Ubeys bunlardandï¿½r. Kendisi de Mescidi Haram'da mï¿½ï¿½riklerin saldï¿½rï¿½sï¿½na uï¿½ramï¿½ï¿½tï¿½. Ebï¿½ Bekir, iman ettikten sonra ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ tebliï¿½e gizli gizli devam ediyordu. Annesi, karï¿½sï¿½ ï¿½mmï¿½ Ruman ve kï¿½zï¿½ Esma da iman etmiï¿½, fakat oï¿½ullarï¿½ Abdullah, Abdurrahman ve babasï¿½ Ebï¿½ Kuhafe henï¿½z iman etmemiï¿½lerdi. Osman b. Affan, Sa'd b. Ebï¿½ Vakkas, Abdurrahman b. Avf, Zï¿½beyr b. Avvï¿½m, Talha b. Ubeydullah gibi ilk mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½ ï¿½slï¿½m'a dï¿½vet eden odur. Mï¿½ï¿½riklerin eziyetleri ï¿½oï¿½alï¿½p mï¿½slï¿½manlara yapï¿½lan baskï¿½lar arttï¿½ktan sonra Hz. Peygamber Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'e de Habeï¿½istan'a gï¿½ï¿½ etmesini sï¿½ylemiï¿½ ve Ebï¿½ Bekir yola ï¿½ï¿½kmï¿½ï¿½; ancak Berkï¿½'lGï¿½mï¿½d'da Mekke'nin ileri gelen kabilelerinden ï¿½bn Dugunne ile karï¿½ï¿½laï¿½tï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda ï¿½bn Dugunne onu himayesine aldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ ve Mekke'ye dï¿½nmesi gerektiï¿½ini belirterek, ikisi birlikte Mekke'ye dï¿½nmï¿½ï¿½lerdir. Ancak ï¿½artlï¿½ olarak Ebï¿½ Bekir'i himayesine alan ï¿½bn Dugunne, Ebï¿½ Bekir'in aï¿½ï¿½ktan aï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a ibadet etmesi ve inancï¿½nï¿½ yaymaya devam etmesi sebebiyle ï¿½artlarï¿½ yerine getirmediï¿½ini iddia ederek ona ibadetini gizli yapmasï¿½nï¿½ sï¿½ylediï¿½inde Ebï¿½ Bekir, onun himayesine ihtiyacï¿½ olmadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½, zaten kendisine sï¿½z de vermediï¿½ini ifade etmiï¿½ti: "Senin himayeni sana iï¿½de ediyorum. Bana Allah'ï¿½n himayesi yeter." Bï¿½ylece onï¿½ï¿½ yï¿½l Mekke'de Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n yanï¿½nda kalan Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Hz. Aiï¿½e'nin rivï¿½yetine gï¿½re, Rasï¿½lullah hicret emrini alï¿½p Ebï¿½ Bekir'e gelerek ona beraberce hicret edeceklerini sï¿½yleyince Ebï¿½ Bekir sevinï¿½ten aï¿½lamaya baï¿½lamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½ (ï¿½bn Hiï¿½ï¿½m, esSire, II, 485). Hz. Peygamber'in bir gecede Mekke'den Kudï¿½s'e oradan Sidretï¿½'l Mï¿½nteha'ya gittiï¿½i ï¿½sra ve Mirï¿½c * hï¿½disesini duyan mï¿½ï¿½rikler bunu Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'e yetiï¿½tirdikleri zaman; "O dediyse doï¿½rudur." demiï¿½tir. Bu sï¿½zï¿½nden sonra Ebu Bekir'e; ihlï¿½slï¿½, asla yalan sï¿½ylemeyen, ï¿½zï¿½ doï¿½ru, itikadï¿½nda ï¿½ï¿½phe olmayan anlamï¿½nda, "Sï¿½ddï¿½k" lï¿½kabï¿½ verildi. Kur'an tï¿½biriyle, "O, ne iyi arkadaï¿½tï¿½ " (enNisï¿½, 4/69) denilebilir. ï¿½ï¿½te o "Sï¿½ddï¿½k" ile o "Emï¿½n", o iki arkadaï¿½ beraberce Sevr daï¿½ï¿½ndaki maï¿½araya hareket ederek hicret etmiï¿½lerdir. Hicreti Sevr maï¿½arasï¿½na ilk giren Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, (r.a.) maï¿½arada keï¿½if yaptï¿½ktan sonra Rasï¿½lullah iï¿½eri girmiï¿½tir. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in kï¿½zï¿½ Esma yolda yemeleri iï¿½in azï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½ hazï¿½rlamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½. Onlar Mekke'den ayrï¿½lï¿½nca mï¿½ï¿½rikler her tarafa adamlarï¿½nï¿½ yollayarak aramaya baï¿½ladï¿½lar. Kureyï¿½ kabilesinin mï¿½ï¿½rikleri Ebï¿½ Cehil baï¿½kanlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda Esma'nï¿½n evini aradï¿½lar, hakaret edip dayak attï¿½lar. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir (r.a.) hicret yolculuï¿½una ï¿½ï¿½karken yanï¿½na bï¿½tï¿½n parasï¿½nï¿½ almï¿½ï¿½tï¿½. Buna raï¿½men kï¿½zï¿½ Esma onun nerede olduï¿½unu, nereye gittiï¿½ini kï¿½firlere sï¿½ylememiï¿½tir. ï¿½z sï¿½ren Mekkeli mï¿½ï¿½rikler Sevr maï¿½arasï¿½na kadar geldiler. Rasï¿½lullah bu sï¿½rada Kur'ï¿½n'da anlatï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ biï¿½imde ï¿½ï¿½yle diyordu: "ï¿½zï¿½lme, Allah bizimledir" (etTevbe, 104/40). Nitekim Allah ona gï¿½ven vermiï¿½, gï¿½remedikleri askerleriyle onu desteklemiï¿½tir; Allah gï¿½ï¿½lï¿½dï¿½r, hakimdir. Kï¿½firler tï¿½m aramalara raï¿½men onlarï¿½ bulamadï¿½lar. Maï¿½arada ï¿½ï¿½ gï¿½n kaldï¿½ktan sonra Medine'ye yï¿½nelen Rasï¿½lullah ile Ebï¿½ Bekir Kuba'ya vardï¿½lar. Ebï¿½ Bekir maï¿½arada kaldï¿½klarï¿½ gï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yle anlatï¿½r: "Rasï¿½lullah (s.a.s.) ile beraber bir maï¿½arada bulundum. Bir ara baï¿½ï¿½mï¿½ kaldï¿½rï¿½p baktï¿½m. O anda Kureyï¿½ casuslarï¿½nï¿½n ayaklarï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½rdï¿½m. Bunun ï¿½zerine, 'Ya Rasï¿½lullah, bunlardan birkaï¿½ï¿½ gï¿½zï¿½nï¿½ aï¿½aï¿½ï¿½ eï¿½se de baksa muhakkak bizi gï¿½rï¿½r' dedim. O, 'Sus ya Ebï¿½ Bekir. ï¿½ki yoldaï¿½ ki, Allah onlarï¿½n ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ncï¿½sï¿½ ola, endiï¿½e edilir mi?' buyurdu. Kuba'da ï¿½ï¿½ gï¿½n kalan Rasï¿½lullah ile Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir nihayet Medine'ye vardï¿½lar. Medine'de Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir humma hastalï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na tutuldu. Hastalï¿½k ilerleyip yataï¿½a dï¿½ï¿½tï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nde Rasï¿½lullah, "Allah'ï¿½m Mekke'yi bize sevgili kï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n gibi Medine'yi de bize sevgili kï¿½l, hummayï¿½ bizden uzaklaï¿½tï¿½r' diye dua ettiï¿½i zaman Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir ve hasta olan diï¿½er sahï¿½bï¿½ler iyileï¿½tiler. Bu aradï¿½ Hz. ï¿½iï¿½e ile Hz. Muhammed (s.ï¿½.s.)'in dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nleri yapï¿½ldï¿½. Mescidi Nebï¿½ inï¿½ï¿½ edildi. Masraflarï¿½n bir kï¿½smï¿½nï¿½ Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir karï¿½ï¿½ladï¿½. Medine'de kardeï¿½lik tesis edildiï¿½inde Ebï¿½ Bekir'in kardeï¿½liï¿½i Harise b. Zeyd oldu. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir Medine'de Mescidi Nebï¿½'nin inï¿½asï¿½na katï¿½ldï¿½. Rasï¿½lullah ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ yaymak ve dï¿½ï¿½manlar hakkï¿½nda bilgi toplamak iï¿½in seriyye denilen keï¿½if kollarï¿½nï¿½ Medine dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na gï¿½nderiyor, bunlara bazen Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir de katï¿½lï¿½yordu. Rasï¿½lullah ile birlikte bizzat ï¿½arpï¿½ï¿½tï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ savaï¿½larda (Bedir'de, Uhud'da, Hendek'te) Ebï¿½ Bekir de yer aldï¿½. O, Mï¿½reysi, Kurayza, Hayber, Mekke, Huneyn, Taif gazvelerinde de bulundu. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n bizzat idare ettiï¿½i harplere gazve denir. Ebï¿½ Bekir, bu sï¿½zï¿½ geï¿½en bï¿½yï¿½k savaï¿½lardan baï¿½ka, otuzdan fazla gazveye katï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. ï¿½arpï¿½ï¿½ma olmaksï¿½zï¿½n Veddan, Buvat, Bedri ï¿½lï¿½, Uï¿½eyre gazveleriyle de dï¿½ï¿½manlar itaat altï¿½na alï¿½nmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Bï¿½tï¿½n bu gazvelerde Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n en yakï¿½nï¿½nda yer almï¿½ï¿½ olup onun "veziri" gibi idi. Bedir'de, oï¿½lu Abdurrahman mï¿½ï¿½rikler safï¿½nda yer aldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda Ebï¿½ Bekir oï¿½luyla ï¿½arpï¿½ï¿½mï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Sadece o deï¿½il, Bedir'de birï¿½ok sahï¿½bï¿½, oï¿½lu, kardeï¿½i, babasï¿½, dayï¿½sï¿½ ile ï¿½arpï¿½ï¿½mï¿½ï¿½tï¿½. Bedir savaï¿½ï¿½, mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½n ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ herï¿½eyden ï¿½stï¿½n tuttuklarï¿½nï¿½, Allah iï¿½in en yakï¿½nlarï¿½ olan mï¿½ï¿½rikleri kan baï¿½ï¿½ veya kabile taassubu iï¿½inde kalmadan, baï¿½ka insanlardan ayï¿½rdetmeden ï¿½ldï¿½rdï¿½klerini gï¿½stermektedir. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n bir amcasï¿½ Hamza, ï¿½slï¿½m ordusu safï¿½ndayken ï¿½teki amcasï¿½ Abbas, dï¿½ï¿½man safï¿½ndaydï¿½. Yeï¿½eni Ubeyde kendi yanï¿½ndayken, ï¿½teki yeï¿½enleri Ebï¿½ Sï¿½fyan ve Nevfel mï¿½ï¿½riklerle beraberdi. Hattï¿½ kï¿½zï¿½ Zeyneb'in eï¿½i Ebï¿½'lAs da Rasï¿½lullah'a karï¿½ï¿½ mï¿½ï¿½riklerle birlikte savaï¿½ï¿½yordu. Hicretin 9. yï¿½lï¿½nda Medine'de bï¿½yï¿½k bir kï¿½tlï¿½k oldu. Bu arada Bizans ï¿½mparatoru, ï¿½am'da Hicaz bï¿½lgesini istilï¿½ etmek ï¿½zere bï¿½yï¿½k bir ordu hazï¿½rladï¿½. Rasï¿½lullah, bu orduya karï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½slï¿½m ordusunu hazï¿½rlarken, kï¿½tlï¿½k sebebiyle zorluklarla karï¿½ï¿½laï¿½tï¿½. Ebï¿½ Bekir malï¿½nï¿½n hepsini bu ordunun hazï¿½rlanmasï¿½nda kullandï¿½. Onuncu yï¿½lda "Vedï¿½ Haccï¿½"nda bulunan Allah'ï¿½n Rasï¿½lï¿½, onbirinci yï¿½lda hastalandï¿½. Hilï¿½feti Hicrï¿½ onbirinci yï¿½lda hastalanan Rasï¿½lullah (s.a.s.) 13 Rebiyï¿½levvel Pazartesi gï¿½nï¿½ (8 Haziran 632) vefï¿½t etti. Onun vefï¿½tï¿½nï¿½ duyan mï¿½slï¿½manlar bï¿½yï¿½k bir ï¿½zï¿½ntï¿½ye kapï¿½ldï¿½lar ve ilk anda ne yapmalarï¿½ gerektiï¿½ine karar veremediler. Ama o da bir ï¿½lï¿½mlï¿½ydï¿½. Hz. ï¿½mer, onun Hz. Musa gibi Rabbi ile buluï¿½maya gittiï¿½ini, O'nun iï¿½in "ï¿½ldï¿½" diyen olursa ellerini keseceï¿½ini sï¿½ylï¿½yordu. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n iyi olduï¿½u bir sï¿½rada ondan izin alarak kï¿½zï¿½nï¿½n yanï¿½na gitmiï¿½ti. Vefï¿½t haberini duyar duymaz hemen geldi, Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½ alnï¿½ndan ï¿½ptï¿½ ve "Babam ve anam sana fedï¿½ olsun ya Rasï¿½lullah. ï¿½lï¿½mï¿½nde de yaï¿½amï¿½ndaki kadar gï¿½zelsin. Senin ï¿½lï¿½mï¿½nle peygamberlik son bulmuï¿½tur. ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½n ve ï¿½erefin o kadar bï¿½yï¿½k ki, ï¿½zerinde aï¿½lamaktan mï¿½nezzehsin. Yï¿½ Muhammed, Rabbinin katï¿½nda bizi unutma; hatï¿½rï¿½nda olalï¿½m ..." dedi. Sonra dï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½p ï¿½mer'i susturdu ve; "Ey insanlar, Allah birdir, O'ndan baï¿½ka ilï¿½h yoktur, Muhammed O'nun kulu ve elï¿½isidir. Allah apaï¿½ï¿½k hakikattir. Muhammed'e kulluk eden varsa, bilsin ki o ï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Allah'a kulluk edenlere gelince, ï¿½ï¿½phesiz Allah diri, bï¿½kï¿½ ve ebedï¿½dir. Size Allah'ï¿½n ï¿½u buyruï¿½unu hatï¿½rlatï¿½rï¿½m: "Muhammed sadece bir elï¿½idir. Ondan ï¿½nce de peygamberler gelip geï¿½miï¿½tir. Simdi o ï¿½lï¿½r veya ï¿½ldï¿½rï¿½lï¿½rse siz ï¿½kï¿½elerinizin ï¿½zerinde geriye mi dï¿½neceksiniz? Kim ï¿½kï¿½esi ï¿½zerinde geriye dï¿½nerse Allah'a hiï¿½bir ziyan veremez. Allah ï¿½ï¿½kredenleri mï¿½kï¿½fatlandï¿½racaktï¿½r" (ï¿½lu ï¿½mrï¿½n, 3/144). Allah'ï¿½n kitabï¿½ ve Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n sï¿½nnetine sarï¿½lan doï¿½ruyu bulur, o ikisinin arasï¿½nï¿½ ayï¿½ran sapï¿½tï¿½r. ï¿½eytan, peygamberimizin ï¿½lï¿½mï¿½ ile sizi aldatmasï¿½n, dininizden saptï¿½rmasï¿½n. ï¿½eytanï¿½n size ulaï¿½masï¿½na fï¿½rsat vermeyiniz" (ï¿½bn Hiï¿½ï¿½m, esSire, IV, 335; Taberï¿½, Tï¿½rih, III, 197,198). Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir bu konuï¿½masï¿½yla orada bulunanlarï¿½ teskin ettikten sonra Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n teï¿½hiziyle uï¿½raï¿½ï¿½rken, Ensï¿½r, Benï¿½ Sï¿½ide sakifesinde toplanarak Hazrec'in reisi olan Sa'd b Uhï¿½de'yi Rasï¿½lullah'tan sonra halife tayini iï¿½in bir araya gelmiï¿½lerdir. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Hz. ï¿½mer, Ebï¿½ Ubeyde ve Muhacirlerden bir grup hemen Benï¿½ Saï¿½de'ye gittiler. Orada Ensï¿½r ile konuï¿½ulduktan ve hilï¿½fet hakkï¿½nda ï¿½eï¿½itli mï¿½zakereler yapï¿½ldï¿½ktan sonra Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, ï¿½mer ile Ebï¿½ Ubeyde'nin ortasï¿½nda durdu ve her ikisinin ellerinden tutarak ikisinden birine bey'at edilmesini istedi. O, kendisini halife olarak ï¿½ne sï¿½rmedi. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in konuï¿½masï¿½ndan sonra Hz. ï¿½mer atï¿½larak hemen Ebï¿½ Bekir'e bey'at etti ve, "Ey Ebï¿½ Bekir, mï¿½slï¿½manlara sen Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n emriyle namaz kï¿½ldï¿½rdï¿½n. Sen onun halifesisin ve biz sana bey'at ediyoruz. Rasï¿½lullah'a hepimizden daha sevgili olan sana bey'at ediyoruz" dedi. Hz. ï¿½mer'in bu ï¿½ni davranï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ile orada bulunanlarï¿½n hepsi Ebï¿½ Bekir'e bey'at ettiler. Bu ï¿½zel bey'attan sonra ertesi gï¿½n Mescidi Nebï¿½'de Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir bï¿½tï¿½n halka hutbe okudu ve resmen ona bey'at edildi. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n defni salï¿½ gï¿½nï¿½ gerï¿½ekleï¿½irken, onun nereye defnedileceï¿½i hakkï¿½nda da bir ihtilï¿½f meydana geldiï¿½inde Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir yine firasetini ortaya koydu ve "Her peygamber ï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ yere defnedilir" hadisini ashaba hatï¿½rlatarak bu ihtilï¿½fï¿½ giderdi. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n cenaze namazï¿½ imamsï¿½z olarak gruplar halinde kï¿½lï¿½ndï¿½. Bï¿½tï¿½n bunlar olurken, Hz. Ali'nin Hz. Fatï¿½ma'nï¿½n evinde Haï¿½imoï¿½ullarï¿½ ve yandaï¿½larï¿½ ile toplandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ve bey'ata ilk zamanlar katï¿½lmadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ nakledilir. Hz. Ali rivï¿½yetlere gï¿½re, elBey'atï¿½'lKï¿½brï¿½'ya bey'at edildiï¿½i haberini alï¿½r almaz, elbisesini yarï¿½m yamalak giydiï¿½i halde evden fï¿½rlamï¿½ï¿½ ve gidip Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'e bey'at etmiï¿½tir (Taberï¿½, Tï¿½rih, III, 207). Onun aylarca Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'e bey'at etmediï¿½i haberleri gerï¿½eï¿½e uygun olmasa gerektir. ï¿½ï¿½nkï¿½ onun Ebï¿½ Bekir'in ï¿½stï¿½nlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ bildiï¿½i, onun hakkï¿½nda yaptï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ konuï¿½malar ve tarihin akï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, diï¿½er rivï¿½yetlere aykï¿½rï¿½dï¿½r. Rï¿½sulullah'ï¿½n en yakï¿½n ashï¿½bï¿½ arasï¿½nda hattï¿½ Ebï¿½ Bekir ile ï¿½mer arasï¿½nda zaman zaman ihtilï¿½flar, gï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ ayrï¿½lï¿½klarï¿½ meydana gelmiï¿½se de ilk iki halife zamanï¿½nda da gï¿½rï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ gibi dï¿½ima birliktelik devam ettirilmiï¿½tir. Anlaï¿½mazlï¿½k gibi gï¿½rï¿½nen hï¿½diselerin birï¿½oï¿½unda huy ve karakter farklï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ rol oynuyordu. Meselï¿½ Ebï¿½ Bekir yumuï¿½ak ve sï¿½kin davranï¿½rken, ï¿½mer sertlik yanlï¿½sï¿½ydï¿½. Ama her zaman birlikte hareket ettiler. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in yï¿½netiminde, Hz. Ali ve Zï¿½beyr b. Avvam Ridde savaï¿½larï¿½nda kararlarï¿½n iï¿½inde, namazlarda Ebï¿½ Bekir'in arkasï¿½nda yer almï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r (ï¿½bn Kesir, elBidï¿½ye ve'n Nihï¿½ye, V, 249). Hz. Ali, Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n bir vasiyeti olsaydï¿½ ï¿½lï¿½nceye kadar onu yerine getireceï¿½ini sï¿½ylemiï¿½ (Taberï¿½, a.g.e., IV, 236) ancak, ï¿½bn Abbas'ï¿½n Rasï¿½lullah hastalandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ zaman ona gidip hilï¿½fet iï¿½ini sormak istemesini geri ï¿½evirmiï¿½tir. Yani Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in halifeliï¿½ine karï¿½ï¿½ kimseden bir ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ olmamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Zaten tabii, fï¿½trï¿½, akli ve maslahata uygun olan da onun halifeliï¿½idir. Hz. Peygamber ï¿½lmeden ï¿½nce yazï¿½lï¿½ bir ahidname bï¿½rakmamï¿½ï¿½, ancak Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in faziletine dair Mescid'de konuï¿½muï¿½, hasta yataï¿½ï¿½ndayken onu ï¿½srarla ï¿½aï¿½ï¿½rtmï¿½ï¿½ ve yerine ï¿½mam tï¿½yin etmiï¿½tir. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, kendisine Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n mirasï¿½ndan pay almak iï¿½in gelen Hz. Fï¿½tï¿½ma'ya, "Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n yaptï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ hiï¿½bir ï¿½eyi yapmaktan geri durmam" diyerek, Fï¿½tï¿½ma'nï¿½n peygamberin kï¿½zï¿½ olmasï¿½nï¿½ dinin ï¿½stï¿½n tutulmasï¿½ndan daha ï¿½nemsiz gï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½ ve Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n yanï¿½ndayken ondan ne duymuï¿½, ne gï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½se onu tatbik etmiï¿½tir (Taberï¿½, III, 220). Sonralarï¿½ Hz. Ali'nin hilï¿½feti zamanï¿½nda Fï¿½tï¿½ma'ya ki, Ebï¿½ Bekir'e gidip miras isterken onu savunmuï¿½tu mirastan hiï¿½bir ï¿½ey vermemesi de ashï¿½bï¿½n Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n sï¿½nnetine nasï¿½l itaat ettiklerinin delilidir (ï¿½bn Teymiye, Minhï¿½c'ï¿½sSï¿½nne, III, 230). Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir "Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n Halifesi" seï¿½ildikten sonra Mescid'de yaptï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ konuï¿½mada, "Sizin en hayï¿½rlï¿½nï¿½z deï¿½ilim, ama baï¿½ï¿½nï¿½za geï¿½tim; gï¿½revimi hakkï¿½yle yaparsam bana yardï¿½m ediniz, yanï¿½lï¿½rsam doï¿½ru yolu gï¿½steriniz; ben Allah ve Rasï¿½lï¿½'ne itaat ettiï¿½im mï¿½ddetï¿½e siz de bana itaat ediniz, ben isyan edersem itaatiniz gerekmez..." demiï¿½tir (ï¿½bn Hiï¿½ï¿½m, esSire, IV, 340341; Taberï¿½, Tï¿½rih, III, 203). Mï¿½rtedlerle Mï¿½cadele, Irak ve Suriye Fï¿½tï¿½hatï¿½ Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n halifesi olduktan sonra, onun vefï¿½tï¿½yla Arabistan'da Mekke ve Medine dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ndaki bï¿½lgelerde gï¿½rï¿½len dinden dï¿½nme hareketlerine, yalancï¿½ peygamberlere, "namaz kï¿½larï¿½z, ama zekï¿½t vermeyiz" diyenlere karï¿½ï¿½ savaï¿½ aï¿½tï¿½. Esvedu'lAnsï¿½, Mï¿½seylemetï¿½'lKezzï¿½b, Secah, Tuleyha gibi yalancï¿½ peygamberlerle yapï¿½lan savaï¿½larla bu zararlï¿½ unsurlar yok edilmiï¿½, isyan bastï¿½rï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½, zekï¿½t yeniden toplanmaya ve Beytï¿½'lMal'e konulup daï¿½ï¿½tï¿½lmaya baï¿½lanmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n hazï¿½rladï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ancak vefï¿½tï¿½ sebebiyle bekleyen ï¿½sï¿½me ordusunu ï¿½rdï¿½n'e yollayan Ebï¿½ Bekir, Bahreyn, Umman, Yemen, Mï¿½hre isyanlarï¿½nï¿½ bastï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. ï¿½ï¿½te isyancï¿½larla mï¿½cï¿½dele edilirken, dï¿½ï¿½ta da iki bï¿½yï¿½k imparatorluï¿½un, ï¿½ran ve Bizans'ï¿½n ordularï¿½yla karï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Hï¿½re, Ecnï¿½din ve Enbï¿½r, savaï¿½larla ï¿½slï¿½m diyarï¿½na katï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½, Irak fethedilmiï¿½, Suriye'nin de ï¿½nemli kentleri ele geï¿½irilmiï¿½tir. Yermï¿½k savaï¿½ï¿½ devam ederken Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir vefï¿½t etmiï¿½tir. Onun ordusuna verdiï¿½i ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½tlerde ï¿½u ibareler vardï¿½r: "Kadï¿½n, ï¿½ocuk ve yaï¿½lï¿½lara dokunmayï¿½n, yemiï¿½ veren aï¿½aï¿½larï¿½ kesmeyin, ma'mur bir yeri tahrip etmeyin, haddi aï¿½mayï¿½n, korkmayï¿½n." Gerï¿½ekten ï¿½slï¿½m ordusu fethettiï¿½i yerlerde kimseye zulmetmemiï¿½, adaletiyle dï¿½ï¿½manlarï¿½n takdirini kazanmï¿½ï¿½, mï¿½slï¿½man olmayï¿½p da cizye vererek ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½n himayesine giren milletler huzur ve emniyet iï¿½inde yaï¿½amï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r. Kur'ï¿½nï¿½ Kerï¿½m'in Toplanmasï¿½, "Mushaf''ï¿½n Meydana gelmesi Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Ridde harplerinde, vahiy kï¿½tiplerinin ve kurrï¿½'nï¿½n birï¿½oï¿½unun ï¿½ehid olmasï¿½ ï¿½zerine, Hz. ï¿½mer'in Kur'ï¿½n'ï¿½n toplanmasï¿½ fikrine ï¿½nce sï¿½cak bakmamï¿½ï¿½sa da sonra ona hak vererek, Kur'ï¿½n ï¿½yetlerinin toplanmasï¿½nï¿½ saï¿½lamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Rasï¿½lullah zamanï¿½nda peyderpey inen vahiy, kï¿½tiplerce ceylan derilerine, beyaz taï¿½lara, enli hurma dallarï¿½na yazï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ gibi, ashï¿½bï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½u da Kur'ï¿½n hï¿½fï¿½zï¿½ idi. Ancak, yazï¿½lï¿½ olan ï¿½yetler daï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ktï¿½, kurrï¿½ da azalï¿½nca Kur'ï¿½n'ï¿½n muhafazasï¿½ hususunda endiï¿½e edildi. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Zeyd b. Sï¿½bit'in baï¿½kanlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda bir heyet teï¿½kil ederek, herkesin elindeki ï¿½yetleri getirmesini emretti. Ayrï¿½ca ï¿½ï¿½hitlerle ï¿½yetler doï¿½rulanï¿½yor, kurrï¿½' ile te'kid ediliyordu. Bï¿½ylece bï¿½tï¿½n ï¿½yetler toplandï¿½ ve "Mushaf" meydana getirildi. Bu Mushaf Ebï¿½ Bekir'den ï¿½mer'e, ondan da kï¿½zï¿½ Hafsa'ya geï¿½ti ve Hz. Osman zamanï¿½nda ï¿½oï¿½altï¿½larak Dï¿½rï¿½'lï¿½slam'ï¿½n bï¿½tï¿½n vilï¿½yetlerine daï¿½ï¿½tï¿½ldï¿½. Vefï¿½tï¿½ Hilï¿½feti iki sene ï¿½ï¿½ ay gibi ï¿½ok kï¿½sa bir mï¿½ddet sï¿½rmesine raï¿½men Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir zamanï¿½nda ï¿½slï¿½m devleti bï¿½yï¿½k bir geliï¿½me gï¿½stermiï¿½tir. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir Hicrï¿½ 13. yï¿½lda Cemï¿½ziyelï¿½hir ayï¿½nï¿½n baï¿½ï¿½nda hicretten sonra Medine'de yakalandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ hastalï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½n ortaya ï¿½ï¿½kmasï¿½ ï¿½zerine yataï¿½a dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nce yerine ï¿½mer'in namaz kï¿½ldï¿½rmasï¿½nï¿½ istedi. Ashï¿½bla istiï¿½ï¿½re ederek Hz. ï¿½mer'i halifeliï¿½e uygun gï¿½rdï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ sï¿½yledi. Hz. ï¿½mer'in sert ve kaba oluï¿½u gibi bazï¿½ itirazlara cevap verdi ve hilï¿½fet ahitnamesini Hz. Osman'a yazdï¿½rdï¿½. Ebï¿½ Bekir (r.a.) de, ï¿½ok sevdiï¿½i Rasï¿½lullah gibi altmï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ yaï¿½ï¿½nda vefï¿½t etti. Vasiyeti gereï¿½i Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n yanï¿½na omuz hizasï¿½nda olarak defnedildi. Bï¿½ylece bu iki bï¿½yï¿½k insanï¿½n, iki bï¿½yï¿½k dostun, kabirlerinde de birliktelikleri devam etti. Kiï¿½iliï¿½i ve Yï¿½netimi Tï¿½cir olarak geniï¿½ bir kï¿½ltï¿½re sahip olan Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, dï¿½rï¿½stlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ve takvï¿½sï¿½ ile ashï¿½b iï¿½inde ilk sï¿½rada yeralï¿½r. Karakteri; yumuï¿½ak huyluluk, ï¿½ok dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½p ï¿½ok az konuï¿½mak, tevï¿½zu ile belirgindi. Hz. ï¿½iï¿½e'nin rivï¿½yetine gï¿½re, "gï¿½zï¿½ yaï¿½lï¿½, gï¿½nlï¿½ hï¿½zï¿½nlï¿½, sesi zayï¿½f" biri idi. Cï¿½hiliye dï¿½neminde mï¿½ï¿½rikler ona gï¿½venir, diyet ve borï¿½alacak iï¿½lerinde onu hakem tanï¿½rlardï¿½. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n en sadï¿½k dostu olan Ebï¿½ Bekir'in Mirï¿½c olayï¿½nda sergilediï¿½i sonsuz baï¿½lï¿½lï¿½k ï¿½rneï¿½i ona "esSï¿½ddï¿½k" lï¿½kabï¿½nï¿½ kazandï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. O bu olayda "O ne sï¿½ylï¿½yorsa doï¿½rudur" demiï¿½tir. Cï¿½mertlikte ondan ï¿½stï¿½nï¿½ de yoktur. Bï¿½tï¿½n malï¿½nï¿½ mï¿½lkï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½slï¿½m iï¿½in harcamï¿½ï¿½, vefï¿½t ederken vasiyetinde, halifeliï¿½i mï¿½ddetince aldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ maaï¿½larï¿½n, topraklarï¿½nï¿½n satï¿½larak iï¿½de edilmesini istemiï¿½ ve geride bir deve, bir kï¿½leden baï¿½ka birï¿½ey bï¿½rakmamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Dï¿½rt eï¿½inden altï¿½ ï¿½ocuï¿½u olan Ebï¿½ Bekir, kï¿½zï¿½ ï¿½iï¿½e'yi Rasï¿½lullah ile hicretten sonra evlendirmiï¿½tir (Tabakatï¿½ ï¿½bn Sa'd, VI, 130 vd.; ï¿½bnu'lEsir, II, 115 vd). Hicret sï¿½rasï¿½nda maï¿½arada iken ayaï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ bir yï¿½lan soktuï¿½unda ve ayaï¿½ï¿½ acï¿½dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda o sï¿½rada dizine yatï¿½p uyumuï¿½ olan Peygamber'i uyandï¿½rmamak iï¿½in sesini ï¿½ï¿½karmamasï¿½, aï¿½larken Hz. Peygamber uyanï¿½p ne olduï¿½unu sorduï¿½unda, "Anambabam sana fedï¿½ olsun ya Rasï¿½lullah" demesi olayï¿½ Ebï¿½ Bekir'in Rasï¿½lullah'a olan baï¿½lï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½n ï¿½rneklerinden sadece biridir. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in beyaz yï¿½zlï¿½, zayï¿½f, doï¿½an burunlu, sakallarï¿½nï¿½ kï¿½na ve ï¿½ivit otuyla boyayan sakin bir adam olduï¿½u rivï¿½yet edilir (ï¿½bnï¿½'l Esir, elKï¿½mil fi'tTï¿½rih, II, 419420). Rasï¿½lullah'tan sonra bu ï¿½mmetin en hayï¿½rlï¿½sï¿½ Ebï¿½ Bekir'dir. O, Hz. Peygamber'in veziri, fetvï¿½larda en yakï¿½nï¿½ idi. Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n, "ï¿½nsanlardan dost edinseydim, Ebï¿½ Bekir'i edinirdim" (Buhï¿½ri, Salï¿½t, 80: Mï¿½slim, Mesï¿½cid, 38: ï¿½bn Mï¿½ce, Mukaddime, II) ve "Herkeste iyiliklerimin karï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ vardï¿½r, Ebï¿½ Bekir hariï¿½" demesi ve son hutbesinde, "Allah, kullarï¿½ndan birini dï¿½nya ile kendi katï¿½nda olan ï¿½eyleri tercih hususunda serbest bï¿½raktï¿½; kul, Allah katï¿½nda olanï¿½ tercih etti'' diye Ebï¿½ Bekir'i ï¿½vmesi ve mescide aï¿½ï¿½lan tï¿½m kapï¿½larï¿½ kapattï¿½rï¿½p yalnï¿½z Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in kapï¿½sï¿½nï¿½ aï¿½ï¿½k bï¿½rakmasï¿½ ona verdiï¿½i deï¿½eri gï¿½stermektedir. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'in nasslara aykï¿½rï¿½ hiï¿½bir gï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ bize ulaï¿½mamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r, ï¿½ï¿½nkï¿½ bï¿½yle bir reyi yoktur. Ebï¿½ Bekir nï¿½sih sï¿½nneti ï¿½ok iyi biliyor, Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½ herkesten ï¿½ok tanï¿½yordu. Bu yï¿½zden hilï¿½fetinde kendisine karï¿½ï¿½ iï¿½te muhï¿½lif bir hareket olmamï¿½ï¿½ ve fitneler gï¿½rï¿½lmemiï¿½tir (Buhï¿½ri, Fedï¿½ilï¿½'lAshï¿½bï¿½'nNebï¿½, 3 ). ï¿½htilï¿½f veya ihtilï¿½flarda ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½msï¿½zlï¿½k, bid'atler onun devrinde yaï¿½anmamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. "ï¿½zï¿½lme, Allah bizimle beraberdir" buyuran Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n haberi sanki lï¿½fï¿½zda ve mï¿½nï¿½da Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir'de zï¿½hir olmuï¿½tur (ï¿½bn Teymiye, Kï¿½lliyat Tercï¿½mesi, ï¿½stanbul 1988, IV, 329). Kaynaklarda onun, "Ben ancak Rasï¿½lullah'a tï¿½biyim, birtakï¿½m esaslar koyucu deï¿½ilim" diye kararlarï¿½nda ï¿½ok titiz davrandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ zikredilir (Taberï¿½, IV, 1845; ï¿½bn Sa'd, III, 183). Bir meseleyi hallederken ï¿½nce Kur'ï¿½n'a bakar, bulamazsa Sï¿½nnet'te araï¿½tï¿½rï¿½r, orda da bulamazsa ashï¿½bla istiï¿½ï¿½re eder ve ictihad ederdi. Ganimetin bï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½mï¿½ meselesinde Muhï¿½cirEnsï¿½r eï¿½itliï¿½i'nin ihtilï¿½fa yol aï¿½masï¿½nda ï¿½mer'in Muhï¿½cirlere daha ï¿½ok pay verilmesini savunmasï¿½na raï¿½men ganimeti eï¿½it olarak bï¿½lï¿½ï¿½tï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. O sebeple hilï¿½fetinde huzursuzluk ï¿½ï¿½kmadï¿½. Rasï¿½lullah ve kendisi, bir mecliste bir anda verilen ï¿½ï¿½ talï¿½kï¿½ bir talï¿½k saymï¿½ï¿½lar, bu daha sonrabirï¿½ok "maslahat gereï¿½i" diye yapï¿½lan deï¿½iï¿½iklik gibi ï¿½ï¿½ talï¿½k sayï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Yani Ebï¿½ Bekir, Rasï¿½lullah'ï¿½n tï¿½m uygulamalarï¿½nï¿½ aynen tatbik etmek istemiï¿½; bazen kalpleri ï¿½slï¿½m'a ï¿½sï¿½ndï¿½rmak istenenlere toprak vermesi gibi maslahat gereï¿½i veya zamanï¿½n deï¿½iï¿½mesiyle hï¿½kï¿½mlerin deï¿½iï¿½mesini sï¿½yleyen ashï¿½bï¿½na uymuï¿½tur. Mï¿½slï¿½manlar henï¿½z otuzsekiz kiï¿½iyken Mekke'de Mescidi Haram'da ï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½ tebliï¿½ eden ve mï¿½ï¿½riklerce dï¿½vï¿½len Ebï¿½ Bekir'e hilï¿½fetinde "Halifetu Rasï¿½lillah" denilmiï¿½, sonraki halifelere ise "Emï¿½rï¿½'lMï¿½'minï¿½n" denilmiï¿½tir. Mï¿½lï¿½ iï¿½lerini Ebï¿½ Ubeyde, kadï¿½lï¿½k ve kazï¿½ iï¿½lerini Hz. ï¿½mer, kï¿½tipliï¿½ini Zeyd b. Sï¿½bit ve Hz. Ali, baï¿½kumandanlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½sï¿½me ve Halid b. Velid yapmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Medine Dï¿½rï¿½'lï¿½slï¿½m'ï¿½n baï¿½kenti olmuï¿½, Mekke, Taif, San'a, Hadramevt, Havlan, Zebid, Rima, Cened, Necran, Cureï¿½, Bahreyn vilï¿½yetlere ayrï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Yï¿½netimi merkezï¿½ olup, ganimetlerin beï¿½te biri Beytï¿½'lMal'de toplanmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Hz. Ebï¿½ Bekir, Mukillï¿½n* denilen ï¿½ok az hadis rivï¿½yet eden ashï¿½bdan sayï¿½lï¿½r. O, yanï¿½lï¿½p da yanlï¿½ï¿½ birï¿½ey sï¿½ylerim korkusuyla yalnï¿½zca yï¿½z kï¿½rk iki hadis rivï¿½yet etmiï¿½ veya ondan bize bu kadar hadis rivï¿½yeti nakledilmiï¿½tir. Hutbe ve ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½tlerinden bazï¿½larï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yledir: "Rasï¿½lullah vahy ile korunuyordu. Benim ise beni yalnï¿½z bï¿½rakmayan bir ï¿½eytanï¿½m vardï¿½r... Hayï¿½r iï¿½lerinde acele edin, ï¿½ï¿½nkï¿½ arkanï¿½zdan acele gelen eceliniz var... Allah iï¿½in sï¿½ylenmeyen bir sï¿½zde hayï¿½r yoktur... Herhangi bir yericinin yermesinden korktuï¿½u iï¿½in hakkï¿½ sï¿½ylemekten ï¿½ekinen kimsede hayï¿½r yoktur... Amelin sï¿½rrï¿½ sabï¿½rdï¿½r... Hiï¿½ kimseye imandan sonra saï¿½lï¿½ktan daha ï¿½stï¿½n bir nimet verilmemiï¿½tir... Hesaba ï¿½ekilmeden kendinizi hesaba ï¿½ekiniz (Ayr. bk. Ebï¿½ Nuaym, Hï¿½lye, l ) 
